ADHDgene Database
  • Published Variant
  • Published Gene: 359
  • Published Region: 128
  • Pathway by PBA: 8
  • Study: 361

Other Variant Report

Basic Info
Name DRD4_exon3_VNTR
Type VNTR
Location exon 3
Length of Repeat Unit 48bp
Related Gene DRD4
No. of Study 58 (significant: 33; non-significant 25; trend: 0)

Variant related studies (count: 58)
Reference Allele Change Risk Allele Statistical Values Author Comments Result of Statistical Analysis
Li D, 2006 2/3/4/5/7 repeat 2R: overall P(Z) P-value=0.6059, heterogeneity P(Q) P-value=...... 2R: overall P(Z) P-value=0.6059, heterogeneity P(Q) P-value=0.2157, publication bias P(T) P-value=0.204, overall OR=0.97; Heterogeneity test between design types, P(Q) P-value=0.9574, Heterogeneity test between sample ethnicities, P(Q) P-value=0.8673. 3R: overall P(Z) P-value=0.9507, heterogeneity P(Q) P-value=0.3767, publication bias P(T) P-value=0.891, overall OR=0.99; Heterogeneity test between design types, P(Q) P-value=0.5912, Heterogeneity test between sample ethnicities, P(Q) P-value=0.5213. 4R: overall P(Z) P-value=0.0042, heterogeneity P(Q) P-value=0.0513, publication bias P(T) P-value=0.07, overall OR=0.9; Heterogeneity test between design types, P(Q) P-value=0.01, Heterogeneity test between sample ethnicities, P(Q) P-value=0.1345. 5R: overall P(Z) P-value=0.0053, heterogeneity P(Q) P-value=0.2067, publication bias P(T) P-value=0.29, overall OR=1.68; Heterogeneity test between design types, P(Q) P-value=0.2958, Heterogeneity test between sample ethnicities, P(Q) P-value=0.9445. 7R: overall P(Z) P-value=2E-12, heterogeneity P(Q) P-value=0.0314, publication bias P(T) P-value=0.062, overall OR=1.34; Heterogeneity test between design types, P(Q) P-value=0.0017. More... 2 repeat and 3 repeat showed no significant association, 4 r...... 2 repeat and 3 repeat showed no significant association, 4 repeat, 5 repeat and 7 repeat showed a significant association with ADHD More... Significant
Mill J, 2003 TRANSMIT P-value>0.05 TRANSMIT P-value>0.05 no evidence of biased transmission to ADHD probands was foun...... no evidence of biased transmission to ADHD probands was found More... Non-significant
Swanson JM, 1998 2-7 repeats 7-repeat HRR P<0.035 (df=1) HRR P<0.035 (df=1) The result provides additional evidence that the DRD4 gene i...... The result provides additional evidence that the DRD4 gene is associated with a refined phenotype of ADHD. More... Significant
Rowe DC, 1998 2-9 repeats 7-repeat Genotype frequency test: P=0.0151 for ADHD-C type; P=0.0319 ...... Genotype frequency test: P=0.0151 for ADHD-C type; P=0.0319 for ADHD-IA type. Correlations of continuous symptom counts: in total sample, r=0.19 (P<0.01), race adjusted r=0.19 (P<0.01) for HI symptoms; race/age adjusted r=0.16 (P<0.01), r=0.21 (P<0.01), race adjusted r=0.20 (P<0.01) for IA symptoms. In any diagnosis sample, race adjusted r=0.16 (P<0.05) for HI symptoms; r=0.22 (P<0.01), race adjusted r=0.21 (P<0.01) for IA symptoms. More... In an association test, the 7-repeat allele occurred more fr...... In an association test, the 7-repeat allele occurred more frequently in children with ADHD-inattentive type than in control children. In genetically discordant sibling pairs, the sibling with a greater number of 7-repeat alleles displayed more inattentive symptoms than his/her co-sibling with fewer 7-repeat alleles. For ADHD-combined type, the 7-repeat allele frequency was greater than that in the control sample. However, a quantitative transmission disequilibrium test yielded no significant linkage of the 7-repeat allele with hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. A categorical TDT yielded no significant findings. More... Significant
Smalley SL, 1998 2-8 repeats 7-repeat TDT test and attributable risk (AR): P=0.03, AR=1.5 for Tota...... TDT test and attributable risk (AR): P=0.03, AR=1.5 for Total sample; P=0.02, AR=1.6 for DSM-III-R definite; P=0.03, AR=1.5 for DSM-IV definite; P=0.15, AR=1.6 for Inattentive; P=0.11, AR=1.4 for Hyper/combined; P=0.04, AR=1.5 for Affected males; P=0.4, AR=1.3 for Affected females; P=0.07, AR=1.5 for Caucasian only. More... Using the TDT in the total sample, the 7 allele is different...... Using the TDT in the total sample, the 7 allele is differentially transmitted to ADHD children (P=0.03) while the mean test revealed no evidence of increased IBD sharing among ASPs. More... Significant
Cheuk DK, 2006(a) 2R: P-value=0.07, OR=0.52; TDT P-value=0.65; 4R: P-value=0.2...... 2R: P-value=0.07, OR=0.52; TDT P-value=0.65; 4R: P-value=0.2, OR=1.51; TDT P-value=0.33; 3R/5R/6R: no P-value; 7R: P-value=0.66, OR=2.01; TDT P-value=0.99; More... not significantly associated with ADHD not significantly associated with ADHD Non-significant
Castellanos FX, 1998 2-7 repeats 7R chi-square P-value=0.81, X2 (1df) =0.06 for the f...... chi-square P-value=0.81, X2 (1df) =0.06 for the frequency of 7R allele between cases and controls, P-value=0.66, X2 (1df) =0.19 for the frequency of short (2-5 repeats) vs long (6 or 7 repeats); genotypic chi-square P-value=0.31, X2 (8df) =9.35, P-value=0.25, X2 (1df) =1.31 for the frequency of genotype 4.4 vs 4.7 More... There was no significant differences between patients and ps...... There was no significant differences between patients and psychiatrically screened controls in the frequency of the DRD*7R allele nor in any other of the DRD4 alleles; patients and controls did not differ significantly in frequency of individual genotypes, in the frequency of genotype 4.4 vs 4.7 or in the frequency of short vs long alleles More... Non-significant
Smith KM, 2003 Genotype groupings chi-square P-value=0.148, Allele grouping...... Genotype groupings chi-square P-value=0.148, Allele groupings chi-square P-value=0.11 More... revealed a trend towards a lower frequency of the 4/4 genoty...... revealed a trend towards a lower frequency of the 4/4 genotype in the ADHD group More... Non-significant
Faraone SV, 1999 2-8 repeats 7R TDT P-value=0.03 indicating that one or more alleles were pr...... TDT P-value=0.03 indicating that one or more alleles were preferentially transmitted to the ADHD child; chi-square P-value=0.007, X2=7.4, df=1 for 7-repeat allele; logistic regression P-value=0.01, Z=2.5 for 7-repeat allele as a predictor of the diagnosis of ADHD More... suggested an association between ADHD and the DRD4 7-repeat ...... suggested an association between ADHD and the DRD4 7-repeat allele; the number of 7-repeat alleles predicted the diagnosis of ADHD More... Significant
Comings DE, 1999 2-8 repeats chi-square P-value=0.0003, X2(6df)=25.50 for alle...... chi-square P-value=0.0003, X2(6df)=25.50 for allele counts; chi-square P-value=0.194, X2(1df)=1.68 for frequency of the 7 allele or 5 to 8 alleles in ADHD compared with controls; chi-square P-value=0.010, X2(1df)=6.64 for 2-4 versus 5-8 alleles More... the distributions were significant for ADHD when the total s...... the distributions were significant for ADHD when the total set of alleles was compared in a 2x7 chi-square test of total controls versus index groups; none of the subject groups were significant for the frequencies of the 7 alleles; the results were significant for ADHD by pooling the 5, 6, 7, and 8 alleles More... Significant
Sanchez-Mora C, 2011 chi-square test P-value>0.05 for allele and genotype frequen...... chi-square test P-value>0.05 for allele and genotype frequencies from each separate site; meta-analysis: P-value=0.78, OR=0.97 for 4R4R genotype versus others; P-value=0.52, OR=1.12 for 7R7R genotypes versus others; P-value=0.53, OR=0.87 for 4R7R genotypes versus others More... no significant association between the 48bp VNTR and ADHD wa...... no significant association between the 48bp VNTR and ADHD was identified in any of the European samples when studied separately; no association between the VNTR polymorphism and adult ADHD was seen in the full ADHD sample in the meta-analysis More... Non-significant
Tahir E, 2000 (b) 2-8 repeat 7-repeat TDT one-tailed P-value=0.047 TDT one-tailed P-value=0.047 suggestive evidence for DRD4*7 was found suggestive evidence for DRD4*7 was found Significant
Tovo-Rodrigues L, 2011 4, 7 repeat Haplotypic distribution analysis by Fisher's exact test: P-v...... Haplotypic distribution analysis by Fisher's exact test: P-value=0.031 for 7R rare haplotypes, P-value=0.086 for 4R; variability test, P-value=0.01 for 7R haplotype distribution, P-value=0.149 for 4R; nucleotide changes test, P-value=0.008 for total substitutions of 7R ADHD group, P-value=0.043 for non-synonymous substitutions of 7R ADHD group. More... An excess of rare variants were observed in the 7R alleles o...... An excess of rare variants were observed in the 7R alleles of ADHD patient when compared with controls. This difference was not observed in 4R allele. Furthermore, nucleotide changes that predict synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions were more common in the 7R sample. More... Significant
Eisenberg J, 2000 2-8 repeat HRR P-value<0.1 HRR P-value<0.1 No preferential transmission of the long DRD4 alleles was ob...... No preferential transmission of the long DRD4 alleles was observed More... Non-significant
Barr CL, 2000 (b) 2-7 repeat TDT one-sided P-value=0.045, TDT two-sided P-value=0.090 TDT one-sided P-value=0.045, TDT two-sided P-value=0.090 It is significant using the one-sided P value but not the tw...... It is significant using the one-sided P value but not the two-sided P value More... Significant
Bidwell LC, 2011 2-4, 7 repeat 7-repeat FBAT-GEE: total ADHD, P-value=0.007 for 4-repeat allele (pos...... FBAT-GEE: total ADHD, P-value=0.007 for 4-repeat allele (positive association), P-value=0.05 (negative association) for 7-repeat allele; Inattentive, P-value=0.007 (positive association) for 4-repeat allele, P-value=0.21 for 7-repeat allele; Hyperactive/impulsive, P-value=0.003 (positive association) for 4-repeat allele, P-value=0.08 for 7-repeat allele More... the 4-repeat allele significantly associated with common ADH...... the 4-repeat allele significantly associated with common ADHD phenotype and both the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom dimensions. More... Significant
Muglia P, 2000 7-/non-7-repeat 7-repeat case-control: allele chi-square test P-value=0.01; family-ba...... case-control: allele chi-square test P-value=0.01; family-based: TDT P-value=0.15; combined z score=2.68, P-value=0.003 More... case-control analysis showed a significantly higher presence...... case-control analysis showed a significantly higher presence of the 7-repeat in the adult ADHD patients vs. controls. TDT test in nuclear families showed a trend toward a increased transmission of the 7-repeat from the heterozygous parents to the affected off-spring. After combined, the overall significance was stronger. More... Significant
Hawi Z, 2000 (a) 2-8 repeat; short(2-4)/long(5-8) HHRR P-value=0.95 for allele 7-repeat; P-value=0.95 when com...... HHRR P-value=0.95 for allele 7-repeat; P-value=0.95 when comparing short repeats and long repeats More... no significant evidence for biased transmission no significant evidence for biased transmission Non-significant
Kotler M, 2000 2-8 repeats, short(2-5)/long(6-8) HRR test: P-value=0.02 for current 49 triads, P-value=0.05 f...... HRR test: P-value=0.02 for current 49 triads, P-value=0.05 for combined 98 triads; P-value=0.17 for ADHD combined type; P-value=0.15 for inattentive type More... there is a significant excess of the DRD4 long repeat in the...... there is a significant excess of the DRD4 long repeat in the HRR control group More... Significant
Kustanovich V, 2004 7 repeat GRR=1.4, TDT P-value=0.137 GRR=1.4, TDT P-value=0.137 not significantly associated with ADHD not significantly associated with ADHD Non-significant
Das M, 2011 2-7R ETDT P-value=0.7, X2(1df)=0.14, RR=1; allelic fre...... ETDT P-value=0.7, X2(1df)=0.14, RR=1; allelic frequencies COCAPHASE P-value=0.83, X2=0.04 for 2R. ETDT P-value=1, X2(1df)=0, RR=1.1; allelic frequencies COCAPHASE P-value=0.81, X2=0.06 for 3R. ETDT P-value=0.47, X2(1df)=0.51, RR=1.1; allelic frequencies COCAPHASE P-value=0.92, X2=0.008 for 4R. ETDT P-value=0.31, X2(1df)=1.05, RR=0.42; allelic frequencies COCAPHASE P-value=0.38, X2=0.77 for 5R. ETDT P-value=0.1, X2(1df)=2.64, RR=2.27; allelic frequencies COCAPHASE P-value=0.16, X2=2.01 for 6R. ETDT P-value=0.41, X2(1df)=0.68, RR=2.22; allelic frequencies COCAPHASE P-value=0.55, X2=0.35 for 7R. More... no significant contribution was noticed by either case-contr...... no significant contribution was noticed by either case-control or family-based analysis for 2-5R; no significant contribution was noticed by case-control analysis; ETDT analysis revealed higher transmission from parents to ADHD probands with higher relative risk for 6R and 7R. More... Non-significant
Holmes J, 2000 2-7, 9 repeat 7-repeat Case-control analysis: overall P-value=0.01, P-value=0.001 f...... Case-control analysis: overall P-value=0.01, P-value=0.001 for allele 7; TDT analysis: overall P-value=0.31 More... There was strong evidence of a difference in distribution. P...... There was strong evidence of a difference in distribution. Possession of the candidate allele 7 is significantly more common in ADHD cases than in the controls. But from the combined regression analysis (TDT analysis), there was no overall evidence of association between DRD4 and ADHD. More... Significant
Arcos-Burgos M, 2004 (b) 7 repeat two-point LOD=-3.18 under model I, two-point LOD=-4.74 under...... two-point LOD=-3.18 under model I, two-point LOD=-4.74 under model II, two-point LOD=-3.21 under model III, NPL P-value=0.4194, PDT smallest P-value=0.0578 for 7R More... Two-point LOD scores were significantly negative; Non-parame...... Two-point LOD scores were significantly negative; Non-parametrical analysis resulted in nonsignificant evidence for linkage More... Non-significant
McCracken JT, 2000 7-/non-7-repeat 7-repeat TDT P-value=0.297 for total sample TDT P-value=0.297 for total sample no significant evidence for biased transmission no significant evidence for biased transmission Non-significant
Brookes KJ, 2008(c) 2/4/7 repeat 2R: P-value=0.87, OR=1.08 in London; P-value=0.29, OR=0.68 i...... 2R: P-value=0.87, OR=1.08 in London; P-value=0.29, OR=0.68 in Cardiff; P-value=0.11, OR=1.6 in Dublin; P-value=0.56, OR=0.92 in IMAGE; P-value=0.86, OR=0.97 in combined. 4R: P-value=0.37, OR=0.9 in London; P-value=0.23, OR=1.27 in Cardiff; P-value=0.04, OR=0.74 in Dublin; P-value=0.35, OR=0.92 in IMAGE; P-value=0.17, OR=0.92 in combined. 7R: P-value=0.33, OR=1.2 in London; P-value=0.91, OR=0.97 in Cardiff; P-value=0.2, OR=1.24 in Dublin; P-value=0.09, OR=1.19 in IMAGE; P-value=0.04, OR=1.18 in combined More... 2R is not significantly associated in all samples; significa...... 2R is not significantly associated in all samples; significant association was detected in Dublin sample for 4R; 7R is significantly associated with ADHD in the combined dataset More... Significant
Sunohara GA, 2000 7-repeat TDT test: P-value=0.045 for Toronto families, P-value=0.013 ...... TDT test: P-value=0.045 for Toronto families, P-value=0.013 for previously reported Irvine families, P-value=1.0 for new Irvine families, P-value=0.028 for combined Irvine families, P-value=0.006 for combined Irvine and Toronto families More... Biased transmission of the 7-repeat allele from parents to A...... Biased transmission of the 7-repeat allele from parents to ADHD probands and their affected siblings was observed in the 2 new samples of families collected in Toronto and Irvine and for these samples combined with the 52 families previously reported from Irvine. More... Significant
Nyman ES, 2007 No available information. No available information. No evidence of association was seen. No evidence of association was seen. Non-significant
Qian Q, 2007 Chi-square test: long- and short-repeat genotype analysis: P...... Chi-square test: long- and short-repeat genotype analysis: P-value=0.004 for Male ADHD, P-value=0.006 for male ADHD-C, P-value=0.033 for male ADHD-I, P-value=0.016 for male ADHD for refined phenotype, P-value=0.480 for female ADHD; long- and short-repeat allele analysis: P-value=0.021 for Male ADHD, P-value=0.031 for male ADHD-C, P-value=0.055 for male ADHD-I, P-value=0.027 for male ADHD for refined phenotype, P-value=0.033 for female ADHD More... When stratified by gender, the long-repeat genotypes and all...... When stratified by gender, the long-repeat genotypes and alleles were found more frequently in male ADHD probands than in male controls. The same results were found for males with the ADHD-C subtype. In contrast, long-repeat alleles occurred less frequently in female ADHD subjects than in female controls More... Significant
Bakker SC, 2005 7R allelic TDT P-value=0.50 allelic TDT P-value=0.50 no signs of a distorted transmissions of any of the single p...... no signs of a distorted transmissions of any of the single polymorphisms, or of single alleles More... Non-significant
Qian Q, 2004 short(2-3R)/long(4-6R) case-control genotype X2 test: P-value=0.004 (OR=...... case-control genotype X2 test: P-value=0.004 (OR=2.846, 95%CI=1.349-6.003) for male-ADHD, P-value=0.006 (OR=3.964, 95%CI=1.386-11.341) for male-ADHDC, P-value=0.033 for male-ADHDI, P-value=0.48 for femle-ADHD; case-control allele X2 test: P-value=0.021 (OR=1.572, 95%CI=1.068-2.313) for male-ADHD, P-value=0.031 (OR=1.665, 95%CI=1.045-2.655) for male-ADHDC, P-value=0.055 for male-ADHDI, P-value=0.033 (OR=0.446, 95%CI=0.210-0.949)for femle-ADHD; HHRR P-value=1; ETDT P>0.05 More... no evidence of case-control differences in allelic frequenci...... no evidence of case-control differences in allelic frequencies, but the long-repeat genotypes and alleles were found more frequently in male ADHD probands than in male controls; no overall evidence of association between SLC6A31 and ADHD according to HHRR analysis; no preferential transmission of any allele were found by ETDT test. More... Significant
Faraone SV, 2001 7R case-control meta-analysis: P-value<0.001, Z=5.2, combined e...... case-control meta-analysis: P-value<0.001, Z=5.2, combined estimate=1.9; combined estimate OR=1.7-2.0 in the sensitivity analysis; publication bias, P-value=0.81, statistic=0.2, t=0.2, df=7. family-based meta-analysis: P-value=0.02, Z=2.3, combined estimate=1.4; combined estimate OR=1.3-1.4 in the sensitivity analysis; publication bias, P-value=0.62, statistic=-0.6, t=-0.5, df=13 More... both the case-control and family-based studies supported for...... both the case-control and family-based studies supported for the association between ADHD and DRD4 7 repeat; no evidence that this association was accounted for by any one study, and there was no evidence for publication bias. More... Significant
Gornick MC, 2007 2-8 repeat 2R: case-control test P-value=0.632, OR=1, TDT test P-value=...... 2R: case-control test P-value=0.632, OR=1, TDT test P-value=0.622; 3R: case-control test P-value=0.758, OR=0.81; TDT test P-value=0.429; 4R: case-control test P-value=0.04, OR=0.82; TDT test P-value=0.758; 5R: case-control test P-value=0.108, OR=0.21; TDT test P-value=1; 6R: case-control test P-value=0.048; TDT test P-value=0.239; 7R: case-control test P-value=0.028, OR=1.19; TDT test P-value=0.628; 8R: case-control test P-value=0.163 More... No frequency difference was found between case and control f...... No frequency difference was found between case and control for 2R, 3R, 5R, 6R and 8R; the controls had a higher frequency of the 4-repeat allele, but the associationwas not confirmed in the TDT analyses; The DRD4 7-repeat allele was significantly more frequent in ADHD cases than controls, but the associationwas not confirmed in the TDT analyses. More... Significant
Carpentier, P. J., 2012 7R genotypic P-value=0.16, adj OR=0.78, 95%CI=0.55-1.10; P-valu...... genotypic P-value=0.16, adj OR=0.78, 95%CI=0.55-1.10; P-value=0.58, adj OR=1.10, 95%CI=0.79-1.52 with gender as the covariate More... No significant association was found for the risk allele car...... No significant association was found for the risk allele carriers in the ADHD_all group compared to the control group. The covariate Gender had no significant effect. More... Non-significant
Todd RD, 2001(b) ETDT P-value=0.86, X2(7df)=3.3 in DSM-IV inattent...... ETDT P-value=0.86, X2(7df)=3.3 in DSM-IV inattentive, ETDT P-value=0.12, X2(6df)=10.0 in DSM-IV combined, ETDT P-value=0.60, X2(5df)=3.7 in DSM-IV hyperactive/impulsive, ETDT P-value=0.81, X2(7df)=3.8 in DSM-IV any ADHD; allele-wise P-value=0.41, corrected P-value=0.93 for Allele 2, allele-wise P-value=1.00, corrected P-value=1.00 for Allele 3, allele-wise P-value=0.58, corrected P-value=0.99 for Allele 4 and Allele 7, allele-wise P-value=0.21, corrected P-value=0.68 for Allele 8 in DSM-IV any ADHD; allele-wise P-value=0.29, corrected P-value=0.81 for Allele 2, allele-wise P-value=0.29, corrected P-value=0.82 for Allele 3, allele-wise P-value=0.47, corrected P-value=0.96 for Allele 4, allele-wise P-value=0.55, corrected P-value=0.98 for Allele 7, allele-wise P-value=1.00, corrected P-value=1.00 for Allele 8 in DSM-IV inattentive; allele-wise P-value=0.82, corrected P-value=1.00 for Allele 2, allele-wise P-value=0.10, corrected P-value=0.33 for Allele 3, allele-wise P-value=0.89, corrected P-value=1.00 for Allele 4, allele-wise P-value=1.00, corrected P-value=1.00 for Allele 7 in DSM-IV combined; allele-wise P-value=0.44, corrected P-value=0.68 for Allele 4, allele-wise P-value=0.53, corrected P-value=0.77 for Allele 7 in DSM-IV hyperactive/impulsive More... there was no evidence for biased transmission of any allele ...... there was no evidence for biased transmission of any allele for either polymorphism for the DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes More... Non-significant
Mill J, 2001 7R allelic TDT P-value=0.01, X2=6.17, OR=1.73 in the...... allelic TDT P-value=0.01, X2=6.17, OR=1.73 in the case-control analysis; TDT X2=0.69 in the family-based analysis More... there was evidence of association in the case-control sample...... there was evidence of association in the case-control sample, but no evidence of linkage in the family-based UK sample More... Significant
Spencer, T. J., 2012 7R P-value=NS, X2=0.03 P-value=NS, X2=0.03 the gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms asses...... the gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms assessed did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. More... Non-significant
Oades RD, 2008 P-value= 0.014 for impulsive aggressive behavior P-value= 0.014 for impulsive aggressive behavior nominally significant association nominally significant association Significant
Lowe N, 2004 (a) 7 repeat TDT P-value=0.198, OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.88-2.07 TDT P-value=0.198, OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.88-2.07 not statistically significant not statistically significant Non-significant
Roman T, 2001 7R allelic HRR P-value=0.54, X2=0.37 in the total sa...... allelic HRR P-value=0.54, X2=0.37 in the total sample, allelic HRR P-value=1, X2=0 in the combined type for 7R; chi-square between probands and controls =11.55, P-value=0.03, chi-square between parents and controls=12.17, P-value=0.03; P-value=0.55, X2=0.36 for other allele More... no preferential transmission for either the 7-repeat allele ...... no preferential transmission for either the 7-repeat allele or other alleles was observed, but an excess of the 7-repeat allele was observed when both ADHD probands and their parents were compared with an ethnically matched control sample More... Significant
Gizer IR, 2009 Meta-analysis model: Random: OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.15-1.54, P-va...... Meta-analysis model: Random: OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.15-1.54, P-value=0.00007; Q-statistic: P-value=0.0006, I2=54 More... significant but modest association significant but modest association Significant
Holmes J, 2002 7R One-sided binomial P-value=0.05 for 7 allele; chi-square for...... One-sided binomial P-value=0.05 for 7 allele; chi-square for allele-wise TDT=13.63, 4df, P-value=0.009; adjusted P-value using Monte Carlo methods=0.02 More... the results suggested an association between the DRD4 7 repe...... the results suggested an association between the DRD4 7 repeat allele and ADHD More... Significant
Kirley A, 2004 7R allelic TDT P-value=0.198, X2=1.94 in all proband...... allelic TDT P-value=0.198, X2=1.94 in all probands, TDT P-value=0.098, X2=3.19 in combined subtype More... there was no association of the DRD4 7-repeat allele in all ...... there was no association of the DRD4 7-repeat allele in all probands and combined subtype More... Non-significant
Niederhofer H, 2008 7R HRR P-value=0.88, OR=0.93; allelic TDT X2=0.04, O...... HRR P-value=0.88, OR=0.93; allelic TDT X2=0.04, OR=0.92 in 36 trios. HRR P-value=1.0, OD=1.01; allelic X2=0.04, OD=0.94 in 36 trios and 13 duos More... none of the alleles was significantly associated with ADHD n...... none of the alleles was significantly associated with ADHD neither by HRR nor TDT; a nonsignificant result was obtained by both HRR and TDT for the risk allele (7R) More... Non-significant
Johansson S, 2008 Overall P-value=0.31; allelic P-value=0.27, OR=0.90 Overall P-value=0.31; allelic P-value=0.27, OR=0.90 showed no association showed no association Non-significant
Manor I, 2002 (a) 2-8 repeat short repeat TDT P-value=0.05 for 76 families, TDT P-value=0.0025 for com...... TDT P-value=0.05 for 76 families, TDT P-value=0.0025 for combined Petak Tikvah sample, TDT P-value=0.006 for combined all 178 familes; case-control analysis Pearson P-value=0.032 (1 df) More... preferential transmission were observed; small but significa...... preferential transmission were observed; small but significant excess of the short DRD4 repeat in the ADHD probands compared to the control subjects was observed More... Significant
Langley K, 2009 Case-control analysis: P-value=0.001, OR=1.86 (95%CI=1.30-2....... Case-control analysis: P-value=0.001, OR=1.86 (95%CI=1.30-2.65) for baseline ADHD; P-value=0.0001, OR=2.12 (95%CI=1.45-3.11) for persistent ADHD. More... significant association between the DRD4 48 bp VNTR 7-repeat...... significant association between the DRD4 48 bp VNTR 7-repeat allele and 'persistent ADHD'. More... Significant
Leung PW, 2005 2R/Non-2R allelic chi-square P-value=0.015, X2(1df)=5.90 allelic chi-square P-value=0.015, X2(1df)=5.90 a significant increase in the frequency of the 2R allele in ...... a significant increase in the frequency of the 2R allele in the Han Chinese ADHD probands More... Significant
Johnson KA, 2008 X2(1)=3.739, P-value=0.040 X2(1)=3.739, P-value=0.040 significant association between possession of the 7-repeat a...... significant association between possession of the 7-repeat allele and diagnosis More... Significant
Kim YS, 2005 7R allelic TDT P-value=0.67; X2=0.14 for 2R; X2...... allelic TDT P-value=0.67; X2=0.14 for 2R; X2=2 for 3R; X2=2 for 3R; X2=0.78 for 4R; X2=0 for 4.5R; X2=0.06 for 5R; X2=0 for 6R; X2=1 for 7R More... did not show preferential transmission of any allele did not show preferential transmission of any allele Non-significant
Ilott NE, 2010 QTDT AT P-value=0.19, X2=4.74, df=3, QTDT AW P-va...... QTDT AT P-value=0.19, X2=4.74, df=3, QTDT AW P-value=0.35, X2=3.26, df=3 at age 2; QTDT AT P-value=0.05, X2=7.82, df=3, QTDT AW P-value=0.03, X2=8.69, df=3 at age 3 More... modest, nominally significant associations in the AT and AW ...... modest, nominally significant associations in the AT and AW tests at age 3 More... Significant
Kirley A, 2002 7 repeat HHRR: P-value=0.58 (RR=1.07, OR=1.15); TDT: P-value=0.677 (O...... HHRR: P-value=0.58 (RR=1.07, OR=1.15); TDT: P-value=0.677 (OR=1.17); TDT by presence of family history: P-value=0.441 (OR[95%CI]=2.2[0.47-10.35]); TDT of Paternal and Maternal transmissions: P-value=0.207 (OR[95%CI]=0.44[0.12-1.57]) More... no significant differences between transmitted and non-trans...... no significant differences between transmitted and non-transmitted alleles More... Non-significant
Brookes KJ, 2005 (a) allelic TDT P-value=0.55; HHRR P-value=0.55 allelic TDT P-value=0.55; HHRR P-value=0.55 global and allele-specific tests of association were non-sig...... global and allele-specific tests of association were non-significant More... Non-significant
Smith TF, 2010 Comprehensive Meta-Analysis P-value=0.00005, OR=1.33 Comprehensive Meta-Analysis P-value=0.00005, OR=1.33 consistent with previous meta-analytic work, the DRD4 7R all...... consistent with previous meta-analytic work, the DRD4 7R allele was associated with AD/HD across studies More... Significant
Maher BS, 2002 P-value=1.57E-5, pooled OR=1.41; test of homogeneity P-value...... P-value=1.57E-5, pooled OR=1.41; test of homogeneity P-value=0.40, Q=12.59, df=12 More... positive association was demostrated with ADHD in the meta-a...... positive association was demostrated with ADHD in the meta-analysis More... Significant
Carrasco X, 2006 Fisher¡¯s exact test P-value=0.5621 Fisher¡¯s exact test P-value=0.5621 not significantly different from unaffected siblings not significantly different from unaffected siblings Non-significant
Nikolaidis A, 2010 Comprehensive Meta-analysis P-value=0.0001, OR=1.64 in the C...... Comprehensive Meta-analysis P-value=0.0001, OR=1.64 in the Caucasian group; Comprehensive Meta-analysis P-value=0.014, OR=0.72 in the Middle Eastern group; Comprehensive Meta-analysis P-value=0.001, OR=2.41 in The South American group; Comprehensive Meta-analysis P-value=0.49, OR=1.65 in the Asian group More... the Caucasian group showed a positive relationship; the Midd...... the Caucasian group showed a positive relationship; the Middle Eastern group showed a negative relationship; the South American group also demonstrated a positive relationship and the Asian group demonstrated a positive but insignificant relationship More... Significant
Bhaduri N, 2006 (a) 2 and 4 repeats/6 and 7 repeats HHRR P-value=0.0301, X2=4.70, RR=1.81; TDT P-valu...... HHRR P-value=0.0301, X2=4.70, RR=1.81; TDT P-value=0.0588, X2=3.57 More... HHRR analysis showed a significant association; TDT analysis...... HHRR analysis showed a significant association; TDT analysis revealed a positive trend towards association More... Significant
Todd RD, 2005 4R/7R data not shown in the publication data not shown in the publication no significant association was found with DSM-IV defined ADH...... no significant association was found with DSM-IV defined ADHD or ADHD subtypes More... Non-significant